Why Getting The Giggles Is So Contagious

Laughter: works better in company. CREATISTA

It is 25 years since cricket commentators Brian Johnston and Jonathan Agnew famously got the uncontrollable giggles on live radio, while reporting on that day’s Test Match between England and the West Indies. The pair were commentating on the wicket of England’s Ian Botham, when he stumbled on to his stumps and, as Agnew put it: “Didn’t get his leg over”.

The resulting infectious two minutes of laughter has since been voted the greatest moment of sporting commentary ever. It’s worth listening to again – see if you can help giggling along with them.

I research the neurobiology of human vocal communication, and recently I’ve been spending a lot of time looking at laughter, which is easily the most common non-verbal emotional expression which one comes across (though in some cultures laughter is rather impolite and can be less frequently encountered when out and about). There are four key features of the science of laughter that this the Botham clip illustrates.

They don’t want to laugh – but they still do

The BBC has rather strict rules about sports broadcasters expressing too much emotion when reporting – you are not supposed to let your voice “break” (start to lose control). Why, then, do two professional sports broadcasters let this happen? The short answer is it’s an involuntary vocal emotional expression.

Involuntary emotional expressions are controlled by an older evolutionary pathway than the neural pathways involved in the production of speech. This pathway controls vocal behaviour in all mammals (unlike the voluntary pathways that we use behaviours like speech and song). In ways that we still don’t fully understand, involuntary vocalisations like laughter (or screaming in terror) can prevent us from speaking at all – in the clip, it’s clear that they’re not just laughing through their speech, their speech keeps getting stopped in its tracks, frequently midway through a word.

This is why, when you start to seriously get the giggles, it can be basically impossible to prevent them from taking over – as Jim Naughtie found when he blundered when introducing Jeremy Hunt, although he recovered masterfully.


 Get The Latest From InnerSelf


Happens to the best of us.

In addition to the helpless giggles it has been suggested that there is a second kind of laughter. We laugh very frequently in conversation, and neuroscientist Robert Provine has shown that this conversational laughter is really tightly coordinated with that of the people we are talking to. This conversational laughter differs from helpless laughter – it sounds different and it stops and starts really quickly, unlike helpless laughter, which can take a longish while to start. It may also be under rather different neural control.

What happens to their voices?

When we speak, we use the muscles in our rib cage (the intercostal muscles between the ribs and the diaphragm) to produce a very finely controlled flow of air through the vocal folds in the larynx. We then shape the sounds made at the larynx using our articulators (the tongue, lips, soft palate, jaw).

giggles2 8 19The physiognomy of laughter. Sophie Scott, Author provided

Lots of different factors affect how we sound when we speak, including our emotional state – if someone is smiling when they speak, for example, it changes the voice and listeners are sensitive to this “audible smile”.

When we start laughing, the muscles in the rib cage start to produce large contractions – which simply make a noise by squeezing the air out of the body. Each “ha” in a laugh reflects one big contraction. When the contractions run together this leads to a longer spasm, which sounds like a high-pitched wheeze. The forces generated by the muscles of the rib cage are much greater than those used during normal speech, and this means that laughter can be very high pitched (my laugh is pitched far higher than I could ever sing, for example).

This also means that is people try to speak through laughter, the pitch of their voices can be highly uncontrolled, and can shoot right upwards. All of these changes can be heard in the legover clip – Johnston starts with an audible smile, starts to laugh, stops being able to speak, produces high-pitched wheezes and, when he manages to speak, does so with a really high-pitched voice.

Why are they laughing?

You can hear in their voices a slight embarrassment at having to discuss exactly what Botham’s inner thigh is doing, at the top of the clip. I can empathise. In this context, Agnew makes a little joke about “legovers” – but, very quickly, he and Johnston are not laughing because this is a very funny joke, they are laughing simply because they are both there, and they are laughing.

Provine also showed that laughter is highly contagious – one can often catch a laugh from someone else simply because they are laughing, not because of why they are laughing. And laughter primes laughter – this is why comedy shows use warm-up acts, as people will laugh more if they are already laughing.

In the legover clip they are pretty soon only laughing because they are both laughing – and they just keep on setting each other off (which is why Johnston pleads: “Aggers, do stop it!”). This behavioural contagion rather than the hilarity of the legover comment) is probably why this clip still makes me laugh, and I have been listening to it, analysing it and playing it to people for over ten years.

Why is it delightful to listen to?

Provine has argued that although we think of laughter as being caused by jokes, it is actually a social behaviour that we do when we are with other people. Laughter is less to do with humour and more to do with making and maintain social bonds. We are 30 times more likely to laugh when we are with someone else than when we are on our own. 

So it’s likely that had Agnew been on his own, and made the legover joke, that he woudn’t have been overcome with giggles in the same way. Indeed, he would probably not have laughed in the same way had he been doing a broadcast with someone that he did not know – laughter is much less behaviourally contagious from someone who is unfamiliar to us.

From the first audible smile that we can hear in Johnston’s voice, we’re aware that these are two men who not only know each other, but sound like they probably like each other. Work by Laura Kurtz and Sara Algoe showed a correlation between the amount of laughter that couples share, with other indices of the strength of the relationship – from emotional support through to emotional closeness.

Of course the direction of this relationship remains unknown – do we laugh more with those we love because we love them, or does it make us love them? It would also be interesting to speculate whether this might be extended to other close relationships, like friendship. It is certainly hard to imaging that Johnston and Agnew would be laughing like this if they detested each other. Laughter has been described by Victor Borges as “the shortest distance between two people”, and I suspect that, ultimately, this is what we are hearing, even at the distance of 25 years: the sound of genuine, joyous, shared emotion.

About The Author

Sophie Scott, Professor of Cognitive Psychology, UCL

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

You May Also Like

AVAILABLE LANGUAGES

enafarzh-CNzh-TWnltlfifrdehiiditjakomsnofaptruessvtrvi

follow InnerSelf on

facebook-icontwitter-iconrss-icon

 Get The Latest By Email

First name:E-mail:
 

{emailcloak=off}

DAILY INSPIRATION

Daily Inspiration: March 7, 2021
Daily Inspiration: March 7, 2021
Our culture has relegated aging to the closet. It is not something to be discussed, or even done,…
citizen of the world dress
Daily Inspiration: March 6, 2021
It is said that when someone asked Socrates what country he was from, his response was "of the…
Daily Inspiration: March 5, 2021
Daily Inspiration: March 5, 2021
There's no need to run away, or run to others for answers. Close your eyes and talk to your Self...

INNERSELF VOICES

We Create Our Own Reality By How We See and Interpret Things
We Create Our Own Reality By How We See and Interpret Things
by Pierre Pradervand
How I see my life path is a choice I make minute by minute, hour by hour, day by day… And this…
How to Walk for Health, Fitness, and Peace of Mind
How to Walk for Health, Fitness, and Peace of Mind
by James Endredy
For most people, walking is an activity that requires no thought or intention -- it is rarely even…
Young girl sitting surrounded by lots of book of various colors
How to Recognize Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
by Thom Hartmann
ADHD is not an all-or-nothing diagnosis. There appears to be a curve of behaviors and personality…
How To Recognize Your Core Negative Beliefs and Inner Critic
How To Recognize Your Core Negative Beliefs and Inner Critic
by Bridgit Dengel Gaspard
You may not think you have a core negative belief, but if you’re mysteriously stuck, one or two…
Scrabble letters that spell out: NO HATE
Vaccination or No Vaccination? That Is Not the Question Here...
by Joyce Vissell
This is not an article about the benefits of getting a vaccination. Nor is it an article about not…
heart shape filled with various colors
Quiz: What’s Your Risk of Heart Disease? and What To Do About It
by Maryon Stewart
If you answered yes to more than three questions, I would highly recommend that you follow the…
two balls balanced on top of each other under an arch
Attaining Balance Between Left and Right-Brain by Nourishing the Solar Plexus Chakra
by Glen Park
Aspiration and achievement, power and success, and fame and fortune are presented as highly…
Photo of aurora and moon by Markus Varik on February 22, 2021, Tromsø Norway
Horoscope Current Week: March 1 - 7, 2021
by Pam Younghans
This weekly astrological journal is based on planetary influences, and offers perspectives and…

MOST READ

silhouette of a woman's head and it is disintegrating
Letting Go of All Perceived Pain, Ignorance, and Fear
by Alexis I. Jordan
Thank you, infinite goodness, for your bounteous gifts, including peace, love, freedom and joy,…
picture of colorful fireworks in the sky
Cancer Meditation and Cancer Medication: A Powerful Combination
by Joyce Whiteley Hawkes
Each cell has its own biological clock that controls its individual rate of repair, replication,…
Emotions and Your Moon Sign
How To Deal with Your Emotions According To Your Moon Sign
by Donna Cunningham
The Moon, in the astrological chart, can help us understand how we deal with our emotions. It shows…
heart shape filled with various colors
Quiz: What’s Your Risk of Heart Disease? and What To Do About It
by Maryon Stewart
If you answered yes to more than three questions, I would highly recommend that you follow the…
Why Creating Art With Your Children Is Important
Why Creating Art With Your Children Is Important
by Vicky Armstrong
Many of us may be looking to art activities to keep children busy while at home. If you are, I want…
First Aid Buttons: Regulate The Body's Energy Flow and Improve Your Health
First Aid Buttons: Regulate The Body's Energy Flow and Improve Your Health
by Barry Sultanoff, MD.
We came into this world with special "buttons" pre-installed. These "buttons" are specific spots on…
two balls balanced on top of each other under an arch
Attaining Balance Between Left and Right-Brain by Nourishing the Solar Plexus Chakra
by Glen Park
Aspiration and achievement, power and success, and fame and fortune are presented as highly…
women peering through an opening in a dark wall
Nourishing the Sunrise of Peace with Love and Music
by Christopher Grosso
Yes, love your brother. Yes, live in harmony with nature. But first and foremost, pave the way for…

New Attitudes - New Possibilities

InnerSelf.comClimateImpactNews.com | InnerPower.net
MightyNatural.com | WholisticPolitics.com
Copyright ©1985 - 2021 InnerSelf Publications. All Rights Reserved.